DEMOTIVATING FACTORS IN ENGLISH LEARNING AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LEVEL

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.  Research Background
Learning English as an international language is very important for many teenagers in this world to communicate with the other people that come from different national language background. English is an international languages that used by many people in a lot ofcountries. It is also recognized as the main language for communication with other people from different countries and cultures. Due to the importance of English asan international language, many people try to learn and master it as soon aspossible so that they will not find any difficulties in communicating with othersespecially coming from abroad.
Remembering the importance of learning English, Indonesian government has made some efforts to obtain humanresources who are able to understand and master English well. As a foreign language in Indonesia, English is seriously learned by many people to have a good prospect to be the community of international world. Depdikbud (1994: 1) states “English is the international language that needs to be taught for the purpose of absorption and development of science, technology, and arts and culture as well as the development of relations between nations”.[1]
Starting from 1994 primary schools in Indonesia are formally allowed tointroduce English as a local content subject to the fourth, fifth and sixth grade students. The increasing awareness of the importance of mastering English in thisglobal world seems to have encouraged more and more primary schools to teach it.With Law No. 22 of 1999 on Regional Government, each  region of the district levelhas full autonomy to organize education for its people. The decision to have Englishas an optional subject or as a compulsory subject in primary schools starting from thefirst grade and even kindergartens in some regions seems to have been part of theimplementation of regional autonomy.
Nowadays, Englishis not only taught for junior and senior high school students but also to the elementary school students. Moreover, there are many kindergarteen school offer to taught English for their children, even they only introduced English by songs. It is done in order to get the young learners ofelementary level to be familiar with English as soon as possible. English masteryis a goal that wants to be achieved as the target besides two other languagesnamely Indonesian and vernacular language. In English, there are fourcomponents of language skills covering listening; speaking, reading and writingthat should be learned by the learners deeply and appropriately. Those four skillscannot be separated since they are integrated.
English in Elementary school is not compulsory subject but it is a local content asstated in GBPP 1994: "English is not obliged to be implemented in elementary schools, but organized as local content". (Depdikbud, 1994: 1) Englishis taught from the first grade until the sixth grade as it is stated in GBPP 1994, "In the implementation of the subjects in English as curriculum muatanlokal used communicative approach, which gives the experience langsungbagi students to use English as a communication tool."[2]
From day to day observation has shown that the teaching of English in primary schools has been conducted unprofessionally. We can easily find cases which indicate that elementary school English teachers lack professional support and opportunities for in-service training. In addition, the current practice seems to have been guided by a very serious misconception—that is that teaching English to elementary school children does not require the same English proficiency as teaching English at a more advanced level. That is, the teaching of English in primary schools has been carried out without considering the specific characteristics of the students. Teachers only taught grammar too much, used translation without any context, and gave students too much tiring work.
The English provision to the Indonesian children is not based on a good understanding of children education. Most concerned parties still hold the view that teaching English to children is similar to that to teenagers, adolescents or adults. The provision needs no specific methodology, no specific techniques nor appropriate materials and media. Among English textbooks for children which constitute the existing materials, most of them are still found inappropriate and need a lot of revisions and improvement in all aspects.
The consequence is many students demotivated and lazy to learning English. In their opinion, English is difficult, uninterested and bored. They have no opportunities to learnEnglish as suitable as that they want and they need. Mostly, teacher only taught English as a knowledge not for skill that can student’s use to support and develop their ability in the future, for example to support their job. The teacher taught English to their students only to fullfill the requirement of the curriculum in order to their students can pass the school examination. It can make students more and more feel bored and less motivation to learn English because they also do not  know the importance of English skill for their life.
Another phenomenon is comes from the student’s area. In the major cities, which are geographically then educationally more privileged, the children might enjoy their English lessons because they have the qualified teachers who know English and how to teach it to young learners, they have appropriate andinteresting materials as well as appropriate techniques to learn by. The case is quite different for the children of the less privileged areas where access to qualified teachers, appropriate materials and fun learning is almost impossible. These children have to be content with teachers with no English or child teaching background who are hired because it is only them who are available.
SDN Tamiajeng is one of the elementary school in Trawas region who faced this case. Many students of this school feel lazy and less motivation to study and learn material, especially English in the class. Moreover, there are several students who regard as “trouble maker” inthe class, especially at the sixth grade. They always make a noise or create uncomfortable atmosphere in the class during the learning process. This problem can lead to impaired learning process and can affect other students for getting lazy learning because unsupported and uncomfortable  atmosphere in the class. This troubled student also become the reason why parents feel reluctant to send their children to this school. They are afraid their children will be affected and less motivation to learn if school and make friends with the students.
It is also becoming one of the causes of the declining number of students many parents who distrust of the quality of these school are less able to educate their students. Thus, many parents or children are less interested in school at this place. Consequently, many parents who prefer other schools fo rtheir children.Besides, the existence of a new school in the same region is also one of the causes of the declining number of students in SDN Tamiajeng.One new rival school in the village Tamiajeng is MI Setia Bhakti. Many parents more interest to move their children to study in this new school because the school program is more interesting and creative. There are many school program that can join by their students so, it can make their students more interested and motivated to study in this school, especially for the end of the school program. Besides, the teacher of this school is younger and more attractive and creative than SDN Tamiajeng who almost women and elder. No wonder many parents or children more choose to study in this school and SDN Tamiajeng lost many students from year to year.From the phenomenon above, the writer try to find out what the factors that can make students demotivated to learn in the class, especailly learn English.
From the previous study by Selami Aydin (2012) with his article entitled Factors Causing Demotivation In EFL Teaching Process: A Case Study which investigate the demotivating factors in EFL teaching at elementary school and What Factors Contribute to a Lack of Motivation Among Low-Level Learners in Saudi Arabia? by Alistair Melvin (2012) which discusses about factors that make students in Saudi Arabia lack of motivation, the researcher tries to find out the cause that make English teaching process in the class cannot run effectively from the student’s side. The researcher tried to looking for what students feel when learn English and what their opinion about the teaching English process in the class that make them demotivated, lazy or bored to learn it. 
For that reason, the researcher try to find out the factors that make students demotivated in learning English, especially in the sixth grade of SDN 1 Tamiajeng.The researcher not try to give the solution for the problem, but the researcher only give the teacher information about why their students feel lazy and less motivation when learning English in the class. So, the researcher hope it can help the teacher of SDN Tamiajeng to overcome their school problems, especially to increase students’s motivation in learning English.

B.  Research Question
In this part, the researcher is going to explain about statement of the problem. The writer has one research question from this study, there is:
1.    What is the factors that make students demotivated to learn English at the sixth grade of SDN Tamiajeng?

C.  Objectives of the Research
The objective of this study is to find out the factors that make students demotivated in learning English, especially at the sixth grade of SDN Tamiajeng.

D.  Significance of the Research
There are two major benefits in this research, they are for teacher and for the literature.
1.    For teacher
The benefit for the teacher is to give them information and feedback about what the factors that make their students feel bored or demotivated to learn English in the class. This information might be can help them to overcome the problems in teaching English and also for other teacher who faced this problems in other subjects.
2.    For Literature
The benefit for literature is to enrich their knowledge about what is demotivating factors that make students of elementary school get bored and lazy to learn English. It also can give them more information about how elementary school learn English and how to teach English for primary school.

E.  Scope and Limit of the Research
To avoid misunderstanding what the researcher has explained, the researcher gives scope and limitation of this study. There are many factors that can make students demotivated in learning English that faced by students from many schools, the researcher only research the factors that comes from students at the sixth grade of SDN Tamiajeng at academic year 2014 – 2015. The researcher not give solution for the problems but only give the information what the factor that can make students demotivated in learning English based on the demotivating students’ confessions.

F.   Definition of Key Terms
The researcher write down the definition of the key terms to support the readers understanding this study easily and have same interpretation. There are two key terms in this study, they are:


1.    Factors
Oxford Dictionary define  factor is  “one of several things that cause or influence something”[3]. From the definition we can say whether factors is something that can be cause or influence of something, it can be condition, person, or something else.
In this study, the researcher tries to find out what the things that cause students  having lack motivation or might be no motivation in learning English. What is the problems that can influence them demotivated in learning English.
2.    Demotivating
Before we discuss about demotivating, first we define about motivation. In the simple words, we can define that motivation is some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something. Based on Thornbury in Alistair Melvin stated that “Motivation is what drives learners to achieve a goal, and is a key factor in determining success or failure in language learning” Marion Williams and Richard Burden in Harmer suggest that motivation is a ‘state of cognitive arousal’ which provokes a ‘decision to act’ as a result of which there is ‘sustained intellectual and/ or physical effort’ so that the person can achieve some ‘previously set goal’[4]. Thus, it is accepted for most fields of learning that motivation is essential to success.
In this study, the researcher discuss about students who demotivated in learning English. Thus, first we discuss about motivated. From Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, motivated is “having interest in or enthusiasm for something, especially work or study”.[5] In addition, the methodologist Tony Wright in Harmer describes that the ‘enthusiast’ looks to the teacher as a point of reference and is concerned with the goals of the learning group[6]. From the definition motivating is condition of someone who having interest in or enthusiasm for learning or studying.
Demotivating is an opposite of motivating. It is mean whether demotivated contain negative or opposite meaning from motivated. Thus, we can define that demotivating is condition of someone who having no interest in or enthusiasm for learning or studying or decrease or drop in level of motivation. However, Dὃrnyei in Dr. Niluver BEKLEYEN define that demotivation is external forces that reduce or diminish the motivational basis of a behavioral intention or an ongoing action[7].  In this  study, the researcher discusses about what the factors that can cause students have no interest or enthusiasm, lack or diminish of effort, need and desire in learning English.



[1]Depdikbud Provinsi Jawa Tengah. GBPP Muatan Lokal Sekolah Dasar
Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris. (Surabaya: Departemen Pendidikan dan
Kebudayaaan Provinsi Jawa Timur, 1994), 4.
[2]Depdikbud Provinsi Jawa Tengah. GBPP Muatan Lokal Sekolah Dasar
Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris. (Surabaya: Departemen Pendidikan dan
Kebudayaaan Provinsi Jawa Timur, 1994), 4.

[3] Hornby, A S, Oxford Advanced  Learner’s Dictionary of Current English.(New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 524.
[4] Harmer, Jeremy, The Practice of English Language (London:Longman, 2001), 51.
[5] Hornby, A S, Oxford Advanced  Learner’s Dictionary of Current English.(New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 1616.
[6] Harmer, Jeremy, The Practice of English Language (London:Longman, 2001), 42.
[7] Dr. Niluver BEKLEYEN, Demotivating factors in the EFL Environment, (http;//academia. edu/, accessed on April 24, 2015).